Science, technology and innovation (STI) are important for economic growth and sustainable development. In an increasingly complex an interrelated global risk landscape, STI can also help identify, mitigate and manage risks, and build more resilient societies. Despite progress, large gaps remain in innovative capacity, access to technology, and connectivity, between developed and developing countries, highlighting the need for capacity building. National STI policies and international cooperation can help address these inequities. New and emerging technologies – including digital technologies – can help respond to societies’ needs and contribute to sustainable development, while minimizing associated risks.